Penanganan Terkini Shigelosis dan Referensinya

Penanganan Terkini Shigelosis dan Referensinya

Shigellosis, atau disentri basiler, adalah disentri yang disebabkan oleh infeksi Shigella dysentery bacilli di dalam usus dan rektum. Pertanda utama infeksi Shigella adalah diare dan feses berdarah. Shigella dapat menyebar melalui kontak langsung dengan bakteri dalam feses atau makanan yang terkontaminasi. Shigellosis kebanyakan menyerang anak berusia di antara 2-4 tahun. Penyakit ini sebagian besar tersebar di playgroup, sekolah dasar, dan tempat penitipan anak yang tidak higienis. Penduduk negara berkembang yang tidak memiliki cukup persediaan air bersih seringkali terkena disentri yang lebih parah dan sulit sembuh.

  • Masa inkubasi shigellosis biasanya dalam waktu 3 hari, tapi bisa dengan kisaran antara 1-7 hari
  • demam, bisa tinggi pada anak-anakkram perut terus-menerusdiaremual atau muntahnyeri dan kelelahan ototdarah atau lendir pada kotoran
  • Beberapa gejala atau tanda lainnya mungkin tidak tercantum di atas. Jika Anda merasa cemas tentang gejala tersebut, segera konsultasi ke dokter Anda.
  • Anda perlu menghubungi dokter jika Anda atau anak Anda memiliki darah dalam kotoran, dehidrasi, dan berat badan turun dan demam lebih 38 derajat Celcius. Setiap tubuh bertindak berbeda satu sama lain. Diskusikan dengan dokter untuk mendapatkan solusi terbaik dalam situasi yang Anda alami.

Penyebab

  • paparan dengan Shigella secara langsung: Kontak langsung di antara sesama manusia adalah cara menyebarkan penyakit paling umum. 
  • Contohnya, jika tidak mencuci tangan sampai bersih setelah mengganti popok bayi yang terinfeksi Shigella, 
  • Anda mungkin akan terinfeksimemakan makanan yang terkontaminasi: Penyakit infeksi dapat ditularkan melalui makanan yang terkontaminasi. Sebagai contoh, orang yang memasak akan mentransfer bakteri ke dalam makanan; atau area sekitar makanan mengandung air sisa yang terkontaminasimeminum air yang terkontaminasi: minum atau berenang di air yang terkontaminasi oleh Shigella juga menyebabkan disentri basilerFaktor-faktor risikoApa yang meningkatkan risiko saya untuk shigellosis?

Faktor risiko

  • anak berusia 2-4 tahuntinggal atau menjelajahi daerah yang bersanitasi buruksering makanan yang dijual di pinggir jalan atau tidak jelasseks analObat & Pengobatan
  • Informasi yang diberikan bukanlah pengganti nasihat medis. SELALU konsultasikan pada dokter Anda.

  • Orang dewasa dengan shigellosis akan sembuh tanpa bantuan dokter dan bakteri akan pergi dengan sendirinya. 
  • Pada anak kecil atau orang lanjut usia, dokter akan meresepkan oresol elekrolit untuk diare. Dokter juga memberikan resep antibiotik untuk memperpendek durasi penyakit dan mencegah penyebaran ke orang lain.

  • dehidrasi (kekurangan cairan tubuh) bersama dengan tachycardia dan tekanan darah rendahsakit perutjumlah sel darah putih lebih banyak dari biasanya
  • Sebagai tambahan, dokter mungkin akan memberikan tes untuk memeriksa sampel kotoran untuk menemukan bakteri Shigella atau racun mereka.
  • Pengobatan di rumah Apa saja perubahan gaya hidup atau pengobatan rumahan yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengatasi shigellosis?
  • Gaya hidup dan pengobatan rumahan di bawah ini mungkin dapat membantu mengatasi Shigellosis Anda:
  • beristirahat sampai kondisi membaik, cuci selimut dan sprei dengan sabun dan air hangat sesering mungkin, terutama setelah sembuhgunakan sarung tangan mandi atau sikat toilet dengan larutan pemutih secara terpisah setelah penggunaancuci tangan dengan sabun dan air sesudah menggunakan toilet dan sebelum makanmemakan makanan seperti sup atau bubur lunak, lalu secara perlahan kembali ke makanan bisa tapi jangan makan buah dan sayur mentahjangan minum obat anti-diare karena akan mencegah pembasmian bakteri dan memperburuk penyakit



Referensi Shigelosis

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  • Killackey SA, Sorbara MT, Girardin SE. Cellular aspects of Shigella pathogenesis: focus on the manipulation of host cell processes. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2016. 6:38. [Medline].
  • Agaisse H. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of Shigella flexneri dissemination. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2016. 6:29. [Medline].
  • Nuesch-Inderbinen M, Heini N, Zurfluh K, Althaus D, Hachler H, Stephan R. Shigella antimicrobial drug resistance mechanisms, 2004-2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Jun. 22 (6):1083-5.
  • Dupont HL, Edelman R, Kimmey M. Infectious diarrhea: from E coli to Vibrio. Patient Care. 1990. 30:18-43.
  • Al-Abri SS, Beeching NJ, Nye FJ. Traveller’s diarrhoea. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Jun. 5(6):349-60. 
  • Moralez EI, Lofland D. Shigellosis with resultant septic shock and renal failure. Clin Lab Sci. 2011 Summer. 24(3):147-52. 
  • Khan WA, Griffiths JK, Bennish ML. Gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal manifestations of childhood shigellosis in a region where all four species of Shigella are endemic. PLoS One. 2013. 8(5):e64097. [Medline].
  • Khan WA, Griffiths JK, Bennish ML. Gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal manifestations of childhood shigellosis in a region where all four species of Shigella are endemic. PLoS One. 2013. 8(5):e64097. 
  • Bennish ML. Potentially lethal complications of shigellosis. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 Mar-Apr. 13 Suppl 4:S319-24. [Medline].
  • Bennish ML, Azad AK, Yousefzadeh D. Intestinal obstruction during shigellosis: incidence, clinical features, risk factors, and outcome. Gastroenterology. 1991 Sep. 101(3):626-34. [Medline].
  • Azad MA, Islam M, Butler T. Colonic perforation in Shigella dysenteriae 1 infection. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1986 Jan-Feb. 5(1):103-4. [Medline].
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  • Morduchowicz G, Huminer D, Siegman-Igra Y, Drucker M, Block CS, Pitlik SD. Shigella bacteremia in adults. A report of five cases and review of the literature. Arch Intern Med. 1987 Nov. 147(11):2034-7. [Medline].
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  • Khan WA, Dhar U, Salam MA, Griffiths JK, Rand W, Bennish ML. Central nervous system manifestations of childhood shigellosis: prevalence, risk factors, and outcome. Pediatrics. 1999 Feb. 103(2):E18. [Medline].
  • Avital A, Maayan C, Goitein KJ. Incidence of convulsions and encephalopathy in childhood Shigella infections. Survey of 117 hospitalized patients. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1982 Nov. 21(11):645-8. [Medline].
  • Simon DG, Kaslow RA, Rosenbaum J, Kaye RL, Calin A. Reiter’s syndrome following epidemic shigellosis. J Rheumatol. 1981 Nov-Dec. 8(6):969-73. [Medline].
  • Siegler RL. The hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1995 Dec. 42(6):1505-29. [Medline].
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  • Kroser JA, Metz DC. Evaluation of the adult patient with diarrhea. Prim Care. 1996 Sep. 23(3):629-47. [Medline].
  • Banerjee S, LaMont JT. Treatment of gastrointestinal infections. Gastroenterology. 2000 Feb. 118(2 Suppl 1):S48-67. [Medline].
  • Murphy GS, Bodhidatta L, Echeverria P, et al. Ciprofloxacin and loperamide in the treatment of bacillary dysentery. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Apr 15. 118(8):582-6. [Medline].
  • Wolf DC, Gianella RA. Invasive pathogens. Consultations in Gastroenterology. 1996. 381-384.
  • Sivapalasingam S, Nelson JM, Joyce K, et al. High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolates in the United States tested by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System from 1999 to 2002. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Jan. 50(1):49-54. [Medline].
  • Vinh H, Anh VT, Anh ND, Campbell JI, Hoang NV, Nga TV, et al. A multi-center randomized trial to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin for the treatment of shigellosis in Vietnamese children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Aug. 5(8):e1264. [Medline]. [Full Text].
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  • Killackey SA, Sorbara MT, Girardin SE. Cellular aspects of Shigella pathogenesis: focus on the manipulation of host cell processes. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2016. 6:38. [Medline].
  • Agaisse H. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of Shigella flexneri dissemination. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2016. 6:29. [Medline].
  • Nuesch-Inderbinen M, Heini N, Zurfluh K, Althaus D, Hachler H, Stephan R. Shigella antimicrobial drug resistance mechanisms, 2004-2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016 Jun. 22 (6):1083-5. [Medline].
  • Dupont HL, Edelman R, Kimmey M. Infectious diarrhea: from E coli to Vibrio. Patient Care. 1990. 30:18-43.
  • Al-Abri SS, Beeching NJ, Nye FJ. Traveller’s diarrhoea. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005 Jun. 5(6):349-60. [Medline].
  • Moralez EI, Lofland D. Shigellosis with resultant septic shock and renal failure. Clin Lab Sci. 2011 Summer. 24(3):147-52. [Medline].
  • Khan WA, Griffiths JK, Bennish ML. Gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal manifestations of childhood shigellosis in a region where all four species of Shigella are endemic. PLoS One. 2013. 8(5):e64097. [Medline].
  • Khan WA, Griffiths JK, Bennish ML. Gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal manifestations of childhood shigellosis in a region where all four species of Shigella are endemic. PLoS One. 2013. 8(5):e64097. [Medline]. [Full Text].
  • Bennish ML. Potentially lethal complications of shigellosis. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 Mar-Apr. 13 Suppl 4:S319-24. [Medline].
  • Bennish ML, Azad AK, Yousefzadeh D. Intestinal obstruction during shigellosis: incidence, clinical features, risk factors, and outcome. Gastroenterology. 1991 Sep. 101(3):626-34. [Medline].
  • Azad MA, Islam M, Butler T. Colonic perforation in Shigella dysenteriae 1 infection. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1986 Jan-Feb. 5(1):103-4. [Medline].
  • Martin T, Habbick BF, Nyssen J. Shigellosis with bacteremia: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis. 1983 Jan-Feb. 2(1):21-6. [Medline].
  • Struelens MJ, Patte D, Kabir I, Salam A, Nath SK, Butler T. Shigella septicemia: prevalence, presentation, risk factors, and outcome. J Infect Dis. 1985 Oct. 152(4):784-90. [Medline].
  • Morduchowicz G, Huminer D, Siegman-Igra Y, Drucker M, Block CS, Pitlik SD. Shigella bacteremia in adults. A report of five cases and review of the literature. Arch Intern Med. 1987 Nov. 147(11):2034-7. [Medline].
  • Keddy KH, Sooka A, Crowther-Gibson P, et al. Systemic shigellosis in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 May. 54(10):1448-54. [Medline].
  • Keusch GT, Bennish ML. Shigellosis: recent progress, persisting problems and research issues. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1989 Oct. 8(10):713-9. [Medline].
  • Butler T, Islam MR, Bardhan PK. The leukemoid reaction in shigellosis. Am J Dis Child. 1984 Feb. 138(2):162-5. [Medline].
  • Khan WA, Dhar U, Salam MA, Griffiths JK, Rand W, Bennish ML. Central nervous system manifestations of childhood shigellosis: prevalence, risk factors, and outcome. Pediatrics. 1999 Feb. 103(2):E18. [Medline].
  • Avital A, Maayan C, Goitein KJ. Incidence of convulsions and encephalopathy in childhood Shigella infections. Survey of 117 hospitalized patients. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1982 Nov. 21(11):645-8. [Medline].
  • Simon DG, Kaslow RA, Rosenbaum J, Kaye RL, Calin A. Reiter’s syndrome following epidemic shigellosis. J Rheumatol. 1981 Nov-Dec. 8(6):969-73. [Medline].
  • Siegler RL. The hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1995 Dec. 42(6):1505-29. [Medline].
  • Murphy TV, Nelson JD. Shigella vaginitis: report of 38 patients and review of the literature. Pediatrics. 1979 Apr. 63(4):511-6. [Medline].
  • Tobias JD, Starke JR, Tosi MF. Shigella keratitis: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1987 Jan. 6(1):79-81. [Medline].
  • Rubenstein JS, Noah ZL, Zales VR, Shulman ST. Acute myocarditis associated with Shigella sonnei gastroenteritis. J Pediatr. 1993 Jan. 122(1):82-4. [Medline].
  • Kroser JA, Metz DC. Evaluation of the adult patient with diarrhea. Prim Care. 1996 Sep. 23(3):629-47. [Medline].
  • Banerjee S, LaMont JT. Treatment of gastrointestinal infections. Gastroenterology. 2000 Feb. 118(2 Suppl 1):S48-67. [Medline].
  • Murphy GS, Bodhidatta L, Echeverria P, et al. Ciprofloxacin and loperamide in the treatment of bacillary dysentery. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Apr 15. 118(8):582-6. [Medline].
  • Wolf DC, Gianella RA. Invasive pathogens. Consultations in Gastroenterology. 1996. 381-384.
  • Sivapalasingam S, Nelson JM, Joyce K, et al. High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolates in the United States tested by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System from 1999 to 2002. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Jan. 50(1):49-54. [Medline].
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