References Oral Food Challenges, Diagnosis of Food Allergy
- Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) as an office procedure: a manual.AUBock SA, Sampson HA, Atkins FM, Zeiger RS, Lehrer S, Sachs M, Bush RK, Metcalfe DDSOJ Allergy Clin Immunol. 1988;82(6):986. There is now enough experience with the use of double-blind, placebo-controlled, food challenge (DBPCFC) to recommend its use as an office procedure for most patients complaining of adverse reactions to foods. This manual discusses the practical methods required for the allergist to undertake DBPCFC in the office. Thorough histories supplemented by food allergen skin testing are used to design a DBPCFC that carefully attempts to reproduce the history of food-induced symptoms described by the patient. Precautions that must be taken are delineated before challenge, as is treatment that may be required if a reaction occurs. For those foods to which challenges are positive, longitudinal evaluation with repeated challenge at appropriate intervals help to determine whether or not the problem will resolve over a period of time. ADNational Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, Denver, Colo. 80206.
- Food allergy: a practice parameter.AUAmerican College of Allergy, Asthma,&ImmunologySOAnn Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2006;96(3 Suppl 2):S1. ADPMID16597066
- Work Group report: oral food challenge testing. AUNowak-Wegrzyn A, Assa’ad AH, Bahna SL, Bock SA, Sicherer SH, Teuber SS, Adverse Reactions to Food Committee of American Academy of Allergy, Asthma&ImmunologySOJ Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(6 Suppl):S365. Oral food challenges are procedures conducted by allergists/immunologists to make an accurate diagnosis of immediate, and occasionally delayed, adverse reactions to foods. The timing of the challenge is carefully chosen based on the individual patient history and the results of skin prick tests and food specific serum IgE values. The type of the challenge is determined by the history, the age of the patient, and the likelihood of encountering subjective reactions. The food challenge requires preparation of the patient for the procedure and preparation of the office for the organized conduct of the challenge, for a careful assessment of the symptoms and signs and the treatment of reactions. The starting dose, the escalation of the dosing, and the intervals between doses are determined based on experience and the patient’s history. The interpretation of the results of the challenge and arrangements for follow-up after a challenge are important. A negative oral food challenge result allows introduction of the food into the diet, whereas a positive oral food challenge result provides a sound basis for continued avoidance of the food. ADJaffe Food Allergy Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
- Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: report of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel. AUNIAID-Sponsored Expert Panel, Boyce JA, Assa’ad A, Burks AW, Jones SM, Sampson HA, Wood RA, Plaut M, Cooper SF, Fenton MJ, Arshad SH, Bahna SL, Beck LA, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Camargo CA Jr, Eichenfield L, Furuta GT, Hanifin JM, Jones C, Kraft M, Levy BD, Lieberman P, Luccioli S, McCall KM, Schneider LC, Simon RA, Simons FE, Teach SJ, Yawn BP, Schwaninger JMSOJ Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(6 Suppl):S1. Food allergy is an important public health problem that affects children and adults and may be increasing in prevalence. Despite the risk of severe allergic reactions and even death, there is no current treatment for food allergy: the disease can only be managed by allergen avoidance or treatment of symptoms. The diagnosis and management of food allergy also may vary from one clinical practice setting to another. Finally, because patients frequently confuse nonallergic food reactions, such as food intolerance, with food allergies, there is an unfounded belief among the public that food allergy prevalence is higher than it truly is. In response to these concerns, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, working with 34 professional organizations, federal agencies, and patient advocacy groups, led the development of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. These Guidelines are intended for use by a wide variety of health care professionals, including family practice physicians, clinical specialists, and nurse practitioners. The Guidelines include a consensus definition for food allergy, discuss comorbid conditions often associated with food allergy, and focus on both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions to food. Topics addressed include the epidemiology, natural history, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, as well as the management of severe symptoms and anaphylaxis. These Guidelines provide 43 concise clinical recommendations and additional guidance on points of current controversy in patient management. They also identify gaps in the current scientific knowledge to be addressed through future research. ADDivision of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
- Diagnosis and Rationale for Action Against Cow’s Milk Allergy (DRACMA): a summary report. AUFiocchi A, Schünemann HJ, Brozek J, Restani P, Beyer K, Troncone R, Martelli A, Terracciano L, Bahna SL, RancéF, Ebisawa M, Heine RG, Assa’ad A, Sampson H, Verduci E, Bouygue GR, Baena-Cagnani C, Canonica W, Lockey RFSOJ Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(6):1119. The 2nd Milan Meeting on Adverse Reactions to Bovine Proteins was the venue for the presentation of the first consensus-based approach to the management of cow’s milk allergy. It was also the first time that the Grading of Recommendations, Assessments, Development, and Evaluation approach for formulating guidelines and recommendations was applied to the field of food allergy. In this report we present the contributions in allergen science, epidemiology, natural history, evidence-based diagnosis, and therapy synthesized in the World Allergy Organization Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against Cow’s Milk Allergy guidelines and presented during the meeting. A consensus emerged between discussants that cow’s milk allergy management should reflect not only basic research but also a newer and better appraisal of the literature in the light of the values and preferences shared by patients and their caregivers in partnership. In the field of diagnosis, atopy patch testing and microarray technology have not yet evolved for use outside the research setting. With foreseeable breakthroughs (eg, immunotherapy and molecular diagnosis) in the offing, the step ahead in leadership can only stem from a worldwide organization implementing consensus-based clinical practice guidelines to diffuse and share clinical knowledge. ADDepartment of Child and Maternal Medicine, Melloni Hospital, Milan, Italy. email@example.com
- Oral food challenge in children: an expert review. AURancéF, Deschildre A, Villard-Truc F, Gomez SA, Paty E, Santos C, Couderc L, Fauquert JL, De Blic J, Bidat E, Dupont C, Eigenmann P, Lack G, Scheinmann P, SFAIC and SP2A Workgroup on OFC in ChildrenSOEur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;41(2):35. Oral food challenges are indicated for the diagnosis of food allergy and the double-blind, placebo-controlled oral food challenge is considered the gold standard diagnostic method in children with suspected food allergy. This practice parameter for oral food challenges in children was prepared by a workgroup at the request of the French Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (SFAIC) and the French Paediatric Society for Allergology and Pulmonology (SP2A). We aimed to develop practical guidelines for oral food challenges in children for the diagnosis of suspected food allergy or the evaluation of food tolerance. We also considered the safety measures to be implemented during testing and management of the potentially serious allergic reactions that may arise during the test. The strength of the recommendations was established, using the GRADE evidence-based approach. We considered four issues: (1) the selection of children for oral food challenges (indications and contraindications); (2) the procedure used (material, where the test should be carried out, technique and management of reactions); (3) interpretation of the test and (4) consequences of the test. ADAllergologie-Pneumologie, Hôpital des Enfants, Toulouse, France.
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