Update Reference Growth Disorders in Children

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  • Collett-Solberg PF, Misra M,. The role of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I in treating children with short stature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jan 2008;93(1):10-8.
  • Mills JL, Schonberger LB, Wysowski DK. Long-term mortality in the United States cohort of pituitary-derived growth hormone recipients. J Pediatr. Apr 2004;144(4):430-6.
  • Rainbow LA, Rees SA, Shaikh MG. Mutation analysis of POUF-1, PROP-1 and HESX-1 show low frequency of mutations in children with sporadic forms of combined pituitary hormone deficiency and septo-optic dysplasia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Feb 2005;62(2):163-8.
  • Blethen SL, Allen DB, Graves D. Safety of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid-derived growth hormone: The National Cooperative Growth Study experience. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. May 1996;81(5):1704-10
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  • Root AW, Kemp SF, Rundle AC. Effect of long-term recombinant growth hormone therapy in children–the National Cooperative Growth Study. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 1998;11:403-12.
  • Lindsay R, Feldkamp M, Harris D. Utah Growth Study: growth standards and the prevalence of growth hormone deficiency. J Pediatr. Jul 1994;125(1):29-35.
  • Cuttler L, Silvers JB, Singh J, Marrero U, Finkelstein B, Tannin G, et al. Short stature and growth hormone therapy. A national study of physician recommendation patterns. JAMA. Aug 21 1996;276(7):531-7.
  • Grimberg A, Stewart E, Wajnrajch MP. Gender of pediatric recombinant human growth hormone recipients in the United States and globally. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jun 2008;93(6):2050-6
  • Mayer M, Schmitt K, Kapelari K, Frisch H, Köstl G, Voigt M. Spontaneous Growth in Growth Hormone Deficiency from Birth until 7 Years of Age: Development of Disease-Specific Growth Curves. Horm Res Paediatr. Apr 29 2010;
  • Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH, Hughes PC. Effect of human growth hormone treatment for 1 to 7 years on growth of 100 children, with growth hormone deficiency, low birthweight, inherited smallness, Turner’s syndrome, and other complaints. Arch Dis Child. Dec 1971;46(250):745-82.
  • Wilson DM, Baker B, Hintz RL, Rosenfeld RG. Subcutaneous versus intramuscular growth hormone therapy: growth and acute somatomedin response. Pediatrics. Sep 1985;76(3):361-4.
  • Milner RD, Russell-Fraser T, Brook CG, Cotes PM, Farquhar JW, Parkin JM, et al. Experience with human growth hormone in Great Britain: the report of the MRC Working Party. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Jul 1979;11(1):15-38.
  • Albertsson-Wikland K, Westphal O, Westgren U. Daily subcutaneous administration of human growth hormone in growth hormone
  • Jørgensen JO, Moler N, Lauritzen T, Alberti KG, Orskov H, Christiansen JS. Evening versus morning injections of growth hormone (GH) in GH-deficient patients: effects on 24-hour patterns of circulating hormones and metabolites. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jan 1990;70(1):207-14.
  • Kastrup KW, Christiansen JS, Andersen JK, Orskov H. Increased growth rate following transfer to daily sc administration from three weekly im injections of hGH in growth hormone deficient children. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). Oct 1983;104(2):148-52.
  • MacGillivray MH, Baptista J, Johanson A. Outcome of a four-year randomized study of daily versus three times weekly somatropin treatment in prepubertal naive growth hormone-deficient children. Genentech Study Group. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. May 1996;81(5):1806-9.
  • Sas TC, de Ridder MA, Wit JM, et al. Adult Height in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency: A Randomized, Controlled, Growth Hormone Dose-Response Trial. Horm Res Paediatr. Apr 24 2010;
  • Blethen SL, Compton P, Lippe BM. Factors predicting the response to growth hormone (GH) therapy in prepubertal children with GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Mar 1993;76(3):574-9.
  • Cheng JC, Leung SS, Lau J. Anthropometric measurements and body proportions among Chinese children. Clin Orthop. Feb 1996;(323):22-30.
  • Frasier SD. A preview of growth hormone stimulation tests in children. Pediatrics. Jun 1974;53(6):929-37.
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  • Frindik JP, Kemp SF, Pihoker C. Effective use of magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of children with possible growth hormone deficiency. Endocrine Practice. 1996;2:8-12.
  • Hintz RL. The prismatic case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with pituitary growth hormone treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Aug 1995;80(8):2298-301
  • Kemp SF. Growth hormone therapeutic practice: dosing issues. The Endocrinologist. 1996;6:231-7.
  • Mayer M, Schmitt K, Kapelari K, et al. Spontaneous Growth in Growth Hormone Deficiency from Birth until 7 Years of Age: Development of Disease-Specific Growth Curves. Horm Res Paediatr. Apr 29 2010;
  • Rabin MS. Treatment of a pituitary dwarf with human growth hormone. J Clin Endrocrinol Metab. 1958;18:901-3.
  • Reiter EO, Martha PM Jr. Pharmacological testing of growth hormone secretion. Horm Res. 1990;33(2-4):121-6; discussion 126-7.
  • Rosenbloom AL, Knuth C, Shulman D. Growth hormone therapy by daily injection in patients previously treated for growth hormone deficiency. South Med J. 1980;83:653-5.
  • Rosenfeld RG, Albertsson-Wikland K, Cassorla F. Diagnostic controversy: the diagnosis of childhood growth hormone deficiency revisited. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. May 1995;80(5):1532-40.
  • Rosenfeld RG, Wilson DM, Lee PD. Insulin-like growth factors I and II in evaluation of growth retardation. J Pediatr. Sep 1986;109(3):428-33.
  • Siklar Z, Tuna C, Dallar Y, Tanyer G. Zinc deficiency: a contributing factor of short stature in growth hormone deficient children. J Trop Pediatr. Jun 2003;49(3):187-8.
  • Cohen P, Germak J, Rogol AD, et al. Variable Degree of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) Sensitivity in Children with Idiopathic Short Stature Compared with GH-Deficient Patients: Evidence from an IGF-Based Dosing Study of Short Children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Mar 5 2010
  • Hagman A, Wennerholm UB, Kallen K, et al. Women who gave birth to girls with Turner syndrome: maternal and neonatal characteristics. Hum Reprod. Apr 10 2010
  • Attie KM, Julius JR, Stoppani C, Rundle AC. National Cooperative Growth Study substudy VI: the clinical utility of growth-hormone-binding protein, insulin-like growth factor I, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 measurements. J Pediatr. Jul 1997;131(1 Pt 2):S56-60
  • [Best Evidence] Badaru A, Wilson DM. Alternatives to growth hormone stimulation testing in children. Trends Endocrinol Metab. Aug 2004;15(6):252-8.
  • Bayley N, Pinneau SR. Tables for predicting adult height from skeletal age: revised for use with the Greulich-Pyle hand standards. J Pediatr. Apr 1952;40(4):423-41
  • Belin V, Cusin V, Viot G, et al. SHOX mutations in dyschondrosteosis (Leri-Weill syndrome). Nat Genet. May 1998;19(1):67-9.
  • Boguszewski CL, Carlsson B, Carlsson LM. Mechanisms of growth failure in non-growth-hormone deficient children of short stature. Horm Res. 1997;48 Suppl 4:19-22.
  • Cohen P, Bright GM, Rogol AD, et al. Effects of dose and gender on the growth and growth factor response to GH in GH-deficient children: implications for efficacy and safety. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jan 2002;87(1):90-8.
  • de Mel T, Warnasooriya N, Fonseka C. Growth hormone deficiency in Sri Lanka: a preliminary study. Ceylon Med J. Sep 1991;36(3):95-7
  • Elsas LJ, Endo F, Strumlauf E, Elders J, Priest JH. Leprechaunism: an inherited defect in a high-affinity insulin receptor. Am J Hum Genet. Jan 1985;37(1):73-88.
  • Ferry RJ Jr, Cohen P. The insulin-like growth factor axis in pediatrics. Clin Pediatr Endocrinol. 1999;8(1):1-10.
  • Gandrud LM, Wilson DM. Is growth hormone stimulation testing in children still appropriate?. Growth Horm IGF Res. Jun 2004;14(3):185-94.
  • Gatta V, Antonucci I, Morizio E, et al. Identification and characterization of different SHOX gene deletions in patients with Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosys by MLPA assay. J Hum Genet. 2007;52(1):21-7
  • GH Research Society. Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in childhood and adolescence: summary statement of the GH Research Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Nov 2000;85(11):3990-3.
  • Guyda HJ. Four decades of growth hormone therapy for short children: what have we achieved?. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Dec 1999;84(12):4307-16.
  • Guyda HJ. Growth hormone testing and the short child. Pediatr Res. Nov 2000;48(5):579-80.
  • Hardin DS, Woo J, Butsch R, Huett B. Current prescribing practices and opinions about growth hormone therapy: results of a nationwide survey of paediatric endocrinologists. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Jan 2007;66(1):85-94.
  • Harris NS, Crawford PB, Yangzom Y, et al. Nutritional and health status of Tibetan children living at high altitudes. N Engl J Med. Feb 1 2001;344(5):341-7
  • Horton WA, Hall JG, Scott CI, Pyeritz RE, Rimoin DL. Growth curves for height for diastrophic dysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, and pseudoachondroplasia. Am J Dis Child. Apr 1982;136(4):316-9
  • Horton WA, Rotter JI, Rimoin DL, Scott CI, Hall JG. Standard growth curves for achondroplasia. J Pediatr. Sep 1978;93(3):435-8.
  • Hunter AG, Hecht JT, Scott CI Jr. Standard weight for height curves in achondroplasia. Am J Med Genet. Mar 29 1996;62(3):255-61.
  • [Best Evidence] Lee MM. Clinical practice. Idiopathic short stature. N Engl J Med. Jun 15 2006;354(24):2576-82.
  • Li H, Leung SS, Lam PK, et al. Height and weight percentile curves of Beijing children and adolescents 0-18 years, 1995. Ann Hum Biol. Sep-Oct 1999;26(5):457-71. [Medline].
  • Lyon AJ, Preece MA, Grant DB. Growth curve for girls with Turner syndrome. Arch Dis Child. Oct 1985;60(10):932-5.
  • March of Dimes. Fact sheets for achondroplasia. Available at: http://www.modimes.org.
  • National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive Kidney Diseases. Fact sheets for patients on growth failure in chronic renal insufficiency. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov.
  • Palka G, Stuppia L, Guanciali Franchi P, et al. Short arm rearrangements of sex chromosomes with haploinsufficiency of the SHOX gene are associated with Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. Clin Genet. Jun 2000;57(6):449-53
  • Palmer CG, Cronk C, Pueschel SM, et al. Head circumference of children with Down syndrome (0-36 months). Am J Med Genet. Jan 1 1992;42(1):61-7.
  • Parkin JM. Incidence of growth hormone deficiency. Arch Dis Child. Nov 1974;49(11):904-5.
  • Parks JS, Brown MR, Hurley DL, Phelps CJ, Wajnrajch MP. Heritable disorders of pituitary development. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Dec 1999;84(12):4362-70.
  • Prader A, Largo RH, Molinari L, Issler C. Physical growth of Swiss children from birth to 20 years of age. First Zurich longitudinal study of growth and development. Helv Paediatr Acta Suppl. Jun 1989;52:1-125.
  • Quigley CA, Gill AM, Crowe BJ, et al. Safety of growth hormone treatment in pediatric patients with idiopathic short stature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Sep 2005;90(9):5188-96.
  • Rao E, Weiss B, Fukami M, et al. Pseudoautosomal deletions encompassing a novel homeobox gene cause growth failure in idiopathic short stature and Turner syndrome. Nat Genet. May 1997;16(1):54-63.
  • Roche AF, Wainer H, Thissen D. The RWT method for the prediction of adult stature. Pediatrics. Dec 1975;56(6):1027-33.
  • Rosenbloom AL, Almonte AS, Brown MR, et al. Clinical and biochemical phenotype of familial anterior hypopituitarism from mutation of the PROP1 gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jan 1999;84(1):50-7.
  • Rosenfeld RG. Transition from pediatric to adult care for growth hormone deficiency. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. May 2003;16 Suppl 3:645-9
  • Saenger P. Partial growth hormone insensitivity–idiopathic short stature is not always idiopathic. Acta Paediatr Suppl. Feb 1999;88(428):194-8
  • Satin-Smith MS, Katz LL, Thornton P, Gruccio D, Moshang T Jr. Arm span as measurement of response to growth hormone (GH) treatment in a group of children with meningomyelocele and GH deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Apr 1996;81(4):1654-6.
  • Savendahl L, Davenport ML. Delayed diagnoses of Turner’s syndrome: proposed guidelines for change. J Pediatr. Oct 2000;137(4):455-9.
  • Shanske AL, Puri M, Marshall B, Saenger P. Unique deletion in exon 5 of SHOX gene in a patient with idiopathic short stature. Horm Res. 2007;67(2):61-6.
  • Shears DJ, Vassal HJ, Goodman FR, et al. Mutation and deletion of the pseudoautosomal gene SHOX cause Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis. Nat Genet. May 1998;19(1):70-3.
  • Tanner JM, Goldstein H, Whitehouse RH. Standards for children’s height at ages 2-9 years allowing for heights of parents. Arch Dis Child. Dec 1970;45(244):755-62
  • Toledo C, Alembik Y, Aguirre Jaime A, Stoll C. Growth curves of children with Down syndrome. Ann Genet. 1999;42(2):81-90
  • Turner’s Syndrome Society. Ulrich-Turner syndrome. Available at: http://www.turner-syndrome-us.org/.
  • Weinzimer SA, Homan SA, Ferry RJ, Moshang T. Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations do not accurately predict growth hormone deficiency in children with brain tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). Sep 1999;51(3):339-45.
  • Westphal O, Lindberg A. Final height in Swedish children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency enrolled in KIGS treated optimally with growth hormone. Acta Paediatr. Dec 2008;97(12):1698-706.
  • [Best Evidence] Wilson DM, Frane J. A brief review of the use and utility of growth hormone stimulation testing in the NCGS: do we need to do provocative GH testing?. Growth Horm IGF Res. Jul 2005;15 Suppl A:S21-5.
  • [Best Evidence] [Guideline] Wilson TA, Rose SR, Cohen P, Rogol AD, Backeljauw P, Brown R. Update of guidelines for the use of growth hormone in children: the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrinology Society Drug and Therapeutics Committee. J Pediatr. Oct 2003;143(4):415-21

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